Origin and Habitat
Origins & Spread:
Britain, Caucasus, Central Europe, Himalayan India, Iran
Large - 50 to 65 feet
Species Growth Rate:
Slow - 1 to 12 inches per year
Very Long - greater than 150 years
stiff, narrow leaves typical of conifers.
Spiral – Arranged along the stem in such a way that a line connecting the points of attachment would form a spiral; a form of alternate arrangement.
Evergreen needles, single, spirally arranged but appearing 2-ranked on shaded branches, 1 inch long, long pointed tip, needles typically angled upward forming a V-shape on branch, dark green and shiny above, yellow or pale green below with 8-10 stomatal rows.
Dioecious; Male is a globose strobili; female is a small stalked bud in leaf axils.
Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct
Naked ovoid seed 1/4 inch long, surrounded by a bright red, fleshy aril, maturing in late summer, persistent through fall.
Twig: Light green in color, turning brown after several years; buds green with scales keeled. Bark: Dark, usually red-purple, and scaly or somewhat peeling. Form: Small tree or large shrub up to 60 feet tall with many limbed boles and a short trunk.