White Spruce, Western White Spruce, Canadian Spruce
The White Spruce is native to the north of North America. It is of major economic importance in Canada for its wood which is used primarily for paper-making and also as frequenty for Christmas trees.
Formal upright, Informal Upright, Slanting, Semi-cascade, Group planting, Saikei
Full sun, but needs shade from the midday sun in summer, or needle browning will result. These northern trees prefer cool temperatures, although small or young bonsai may need frost protection.
Spruces prefer moisture, but not water logged soil. Reduce watering in winter, but never allow the soil to dry out completely. Misting is appreciated spring-fall.
Every two weeks, spring-mid autumn, using liquid bonsai food or half-strength general purpose fertilizer. In hot areas, discontinue feeding during the heat of summer. Apply a chelated iron supplement several times yearly.
Leaf and Branch Pruning:
New growth should be pinched, not clipped, several times in spring, when shoots are about 1 inch long, leaving 4-5 clusters of needles. Do major pruning in early fall. Never remove all needles.
Re-potting & Growing Medium:
In general, every 3-4 year in early to mid-spring, before new growth expands, or in early fall. Older specimens (+10 years) may be repotted every 5 years. Prune roots by a 1/3. Use fast-draining soil mix, 1 Part Loam, 1 Part Peat, 1 Part Sharp sand, alternatively use 1 Part Akadama and 1 Part Pumice. Spruce, in general, need to keep a decent-sized root ball, and may need to be planted in a deep pot to achieve this. Protect from full sun for a few weeks after repotting.
Wire between late autumn and winter.