Everygreen conical to flat topped Pine, Native to the Europe, from Norway to Spain, and to parts of Asia, cold hardy to zone 2, growing to 20 meters. Ideal for Bonsai of medium to arge size, and extremely popular in Forest and Literati Styles as lower branches can die back quite readily.
Formal upright, Informal Upright, Slanting, Semi-cascade, Group planting, Saikei
Full sun, but needs shade from the midday sun in summer, as somtimes needle will brown. Dont need any special winter protection, though younger plants will benifit from some form of winter protection.
Prefers moist but not water logged soil. Reduce watering in winter. Let soil surface dry out between waterings, but never allow the soil to dry out completely.
Every two weeks, spring-mid autumn, using liquid bonsai food or half-strength general purpose fertilizer. In hot areas, discontinue feeding during the heat of summer.
Leaf and Branch Pruning:
New growth should be pinched, not clipped, several times in spring. When Candles reach a lenght of 3-5 cm remove the strongest growing candles leaving only 1 or 2 in the cluster. When shoots get to between 5-8 cm cut back leaving only 3-4 pair of needle on the shoot. Do any structural and major pruning in early fall. Never remove all needles of a shoot as it will die back.
Re-potting & Growing Medium:
Every 3-4 year, early to mid-spring, before new growth expands, or in early fall. Older specimens (+10 years) may be repotted every 5/6 years. Prune roots upto a 1/3. Use fast-draining soil mix,1 Part Loam, 1 Part peat, 2 Grit. (2 Part Kiyru, 1 Part Leaf Mould/PIne Bark)
Wire between late autumn and winter. Wire can be left on for about 3-4 month - check young branches for scaring.